The study concludes with chapter 9 which presents a chronology of the historical approach to teaching biology in Dutch secondary schools. The current study is placed in the context of other studies that have tried to devise the best ways to make the science of biology relevant and interesting for secondary school students. The chronology is an essential element of this dissertation because as our contemporary thinking about education develops, it always needs to cognizant of educational approaches taken in the past. Moreover, it is important to know why the (relatively) new content has such existential relevance today.